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Furthermore, this liquid aesthenosphere, which continues to create new crust at rifting zones such as the mid oceanic ridges, melts down subducting crust as the residue of this crust is drawn deeper into the mantle.
While volatiles trapped in the remaining crustal residue are ultimately assimilated into the mantle, lighter volatiles from the crustal melt are fractionated and float up towards the surface to feed plate margin volcanoes.
Extraordinary numbers of seamounts are volcanically active (Hillier & Watts, 2007).
Moreover, active fracture zones also offer a preferred escape route for magmatic CO also finds its way into aquifers (eg.
If we neglect to ask how the greenhouse effect of various gases is quantified in terms of real, measurable thermodynamic properties, the idea of anthropogenic global warming may well survive long enough for us to ask how the carbon budget establishes that observed increases in CO is one of the lightest volatiles (materials of relatively low melting point), found in the mantle (Wilson, 1989).
The fluid nature of the aesthenosphere, or upper mantle of the earth, ensures that lighter volatiles are fractionated, buoyed towards the surface, and either extruded or outgassed into the atmosphere via volcanoes and faults.
In any case, the strong circumpolar winds that delay mixing will inevitably concentrate Antarctica's volcanic CO emissions over the Antarctic continent, including Amundsen Station.To make matters worse, the reported output of any individual volcano is itself an estimate based on limited rather than complete measurement.One may reasonably assume that in each case, such estimates are based on a representative and statistically significant quantity of empirical measurements.Volatiles, such as CO is the second most abundantly emitted volcanic gas next to steam.Although you might imagine that there is no air in the mantle, the chemical conditions favour oxidation, and shortages of oxygen ions are rare enough to ensure a strong presence of CO rather than a representative sample of the Troposphere.
If the statement of the USGS concerning volcanic CO is any indication of the reliability of expert consensus, it would seem that verifiable facts are eminently more trustworthy than professional opinion. Kerrick (2001) takes a grand total of 19 subaerial volcanoes, which on p.